2018年考博英语翻译练习及参考【三篇】

2017-12-12 10:00 来源:网络综合
考博网权威发布2018年考博英语翻译练习及参考【三篇】,更多2018年考博英语翻译练习及参考【三篇】相关信息请访问博士入学考试网。

【导语】海阔凭你跃,天高任你飞。愿你信心满满,尽展聪明才智;妙笔生花,谱下锦绣文章;冷静细心,发挥如鱼得水;心想事成,努力备考,考到理想院校!以下是无忧考网为大家整理的 《2018年考博英语翻译练习及参考【三篇】》供您查阅。

【第一篇:健康的乐观主义】

大多数人愿意把乐观定义为无尽的欢乐,就像一只总是装着半杯水的杯子。但那是一种绝不会为积极心理学家所推荐的虚假快乐。哈佛大学的Tal Ben-Shahar教授说,“健康的乐观主义,意味着要处于现实之中。”在Ben-Shahar看来,现实的乐观主义者,会尽最大努力做好一件事,而不是相信每件事都会有最好的结果。
  Ben-Shahar 会进行三种乐观方面的练习。比如说,当他进行了一次糟糕的演讲,感到心情郁闷的时候,他会告诉自己这是人之常情。他会提醒自己:并不是每一次演讲都可以获 得诺贝尔获,总会有一些演讲比其它演讲效果差。接着是重塑,他分析了这个效果不好的演讲,并且从那些起作用和不起作用的演讲中吸取教训为将来做准备。最 后,需要有这样一种观点,那就是承认,在广阔的生命当中,一次演讲根本算不上什么。
参考译文
 Most people would define optimism as endlessly happy, with a glass that’s perpetually half fall. But that’s exactly the kind of false deerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn’t recommend. “Healthy optimists means being in touch with reality.” says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor, According to Ben- Shalar,realistic optimists are these who make the best of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best.
  Ben-Shalar uses three optimistic exercisers. When he feels down-sag, after giving a bad lecture-he grants himself permission to be human. He reminds himself that mot every lecture can be a Nobel winner; some will be less effective than others. Next is reconstruction, He analyzes the weak lecture, leaning lessons, for the future about what works and what doesn’t. Finally, there is perspective, which involves acknowledging that in the ground scheme of life, one lecture really doesn’t matter.

【第二篇:希望工程】

Project Hope is a public good project launched in1989, the goal of which is to help young dropouts inpoverty-stricken areas. The two major tasks ofProject Hope are to help build Hope Primary Schoolsand fund the poor students. China is still adeveloping country, thus shortage of education fundin poverty-stricken areas is still a severe problem. Because of poverty, more than 30 millionchildren between the ages of 6-14 are unable to attend school or are forced to drop out. Theimplement of Project Hope changes the fate of a large number of dropouts and improves theschool faculties in poverty-stricken areas. The development of basic education is thus greatlyenhanced and the fine tradition of taking pleasure in helping others is also promoted.
  参考翻译:
  希望工程(Project Hope)是于1989年发起的一项公益事业,以救助贫困地区失学儿童(young dropouts)为目的。帮助建设希望小学与资助贫困学生是希望工程实施的两大主要任务。中国仍然是一个发展中国家,贫困地区缺乏教育经费的问题依旧严峻。有超过3000万6—14岁的少年儿童因贫困而不能上学或者被迫辍学。希望工程的实施,改变了一大批失学儿童的命运,改善了贫困地区的学校设施,极大地促进了基础教育的发展,弘扬了助人为乐的优良传统。
  1.第一句中的“1989年发起”可表达为过去分词形式(launched in 1989),作后置定语;“以救助贫困地区失学儿童为目的”可译为非限制性定语从句,对核心词ProjectHope进行补充说明,即为the goal of which。
  2.“帮助建设希望小学与资助贫困学生是希望工程实施的两大主要任务”一句可将“主要任务”作句子主语,避免英语句子头重脚轻。
  3.“中国仍然是一个发展中国家,贫困地区缺乏教育经费的问题依旧严峻”,前后两句的关系可理解为因果关系,故翻译时加上表结果的连词thus,使句子更加连贯,符合英文表达习惯。
  4.“有超过3000万…被迫辍学”一句中的“因贫困”because of poverty可置于句首,避免英语句子头重脚轻;“上学”可译为attend school。
  5.最后一句汉语句子的主语“希望工程的实施”后跟了4个并列谓语,如果对应译为4个并列的谓语会显得突兀,不太连贯,可将后2个谓语译为被动语态,独立成句,以增加句型的多样性;“助人为乐”可译为takingpleasure in helping others。

【第三篇:家庭结构变迁】

With the implementation of the family planning policy and the change of the concept of family, the size and structure of traditional Chinese families have undergone evident changes. One is that the number of one-child families increases, resulting in a gradual decrease in the average number of family members. Another is the miniaturization trend of the family structure, which leads to the traditional extended family being replaced by nuclear family. Changes in size and structure of households contribute to simple family relationship and increasing mutual dependence of family members. However, the changes also exert negative influences, such as a surge in the speed of population aging and the increasing number of the empty-nest families.
  参考翻译:
  随着计划生育政策(the family planning policy)的推行和家庭观念的改变,中国传统的家庭规模和结构发生了明显变化。一是独生子女家庭增多,家庭平均人口逐渐下降。二是家庭结构呈现出小型化(miniaturization)趋势,传统的大家庭逐渐被核心家庭取代。家庭规模与结构的变化,使家庭中的人际关系变得简单,成员之间的相互依赖性日益增强。但是,家庭规模和结构的变化也带来了一些负面影响,如中国的人口老龄化速度急剧上升,空巢家庭(empty-nest family)增加等。
  1.第一句中的“随着计划生育…和家庭观念的改变”可译成with引导的介词短语。“中国传统的家庭规模和结构发生了明显变化”则处理为句子主干。
  2.第二句中的“一是独生子女家庭增多”译作One is that the number of one-child families increases,“家庭平均人口逐渐下降”可采用现在分词短语作结果状语,增译“导致”,译作resulting in a gradual decrease in the average number of family members。
  3.第三句中的“二是家庭结构呈现出小型化趋势”处理成主干,“传统的大家庭逐渐被核心家庭取代”可处理成which引导的非限制性定语从句,对“家庭结构的小型化趋势”作进一步说明,同时使句式富于变化。
  4.第四句“家庭规模与结构的变化,使…”,可将“家庭中的人际关系变得简单”,“成员之间的相互依赖性日益增强”处理成名词短语,译作simple family relationship and increasing mutual dependence of family members,这样处理符合英文中多用名词表达的语言特点,也使译文表达更简洁。