2017年SAT分析性写作阅读理解之预读文章

2017-08-23 17:03 来源:三立在线教育
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【导语】在考前最紧张的时刻,无忧考网联合三立在线教育为大家整理了《2017年SAT分析性写作阅读理解之预读文章》,希望对大家的备考有所帮助!
1.1读什么
Essay部分建议考生去思考作者的论点、如何使用说理论证、论据、文体和修辞来展开论证,这些是许多议论文章的基石,因此我们应该简单来看下各自的含义。
论点,是thesis statement, 是文章的主要观点。论点奠定了全文的话题和中心,文章的一切展开都是为了具体解释说明这个观点。论点是文章作者的观点、结论和评价,通常具有很强的主观性(subjective)。通常,一篇议论文在论点下面,还会有几个分论点,从不同角度来论证总的中心论点。
论证:
用英文讲就是reasoning,是通过推导、归纳、演绎来讲道理证明一个观点。最主要的论证手法有三大类:
(1) 因果关系,也就是通过阐述逻辑链证明某个观点,简而言之,就是“因为…所以…”。把握文章的因果关系,关键要弄清究竟是前因后果,还是前果后因。
因为:because, since, for, because of, due to, owing to
所以:as a result, consequently, result in, lead to, contribute to, therefore, hence, thus
其他:cause, account for, be responsible for, explain
(2) 并列和递进关系:通常是词汇,词组,乃至句子层面的并列。
关键词有: first, second, third
To begin with, what is more, Last but not least
Besides, in addition, Also
(3) 转折和对比关系: 这是对于已有观点的驳斥,或者是提供新的观点。

常用的转折关键词有:
1. 虽然: although, while
2. 但是: however, but, yet
3. 其他: actually/ in fact, despite/ in spite of, nevertheless/ nonetheless, rather
对比可以分为横向对比和纵向对比。横向是同一时间象限内不同个体的对比,而纵向则是同一个体在不同时间象限内的对比,比如将某个个体的过去和现在进行对比。常用的对比词有:by contrast, on the contrary, unlike, compared to, compared with
论据:
用英文讲就是evidence,通常由facts 和example 构成。通常为了证明一个观点,除了给出论点,还会给出论据。
论据是作者用于支持论点的信息和看法。论据有事实,统计,引用权威,实验和其他研究结果,例子等。任何议论性文章的作者都可能会使用一些论据或完全依赖论据。学生需弄清一篇文章中论据的构成和作者如何使用论据来支撑论点。需要注意,文章也会引用科学数据或者名人/个人事例来进行论证。
最后,文章会使用不同的修辞手法来增强感染力和说服力。这些修饰手法种类很多,大家只需要大概了解常见的种类,便于在考场上认出,并且指出作者使用这些手法的语境并评价这些手法如何说服读者。学生也可以进一步分析和评价修辞在多大程度上增加了该文本说服力。
大家在阅读时候,需要不断分析理解文章的不同的论证手法,有利于最后的写作汇总。这时候,问题来了,我们如何去记住这些信息呢?那就需要我们在阅读的时候,不断去用自己的个性化符号去标记。
标重点
建议大家边阅读边做标记,因为一遍读完不做任何标记的话,回头再找不仅会有要点的遗漏,而且会需要重新阅读。如果能在阅读的同时就能做好笔记,提纲挈领,在最后的写作过程,就能快速查找,方便进行总结归纳。
我们在文章的观点左边写一个感叹号!或者 O(opinion的首字母)。在文中,如果有不断的分论点,那么我们就一次写上O1, O2等等。
对于说理论证,我们可以在左边写上R。有时,文章一段都是在论证一个道理,我们只需要把文章打上一个括号,就可以了。
对于举例论证,我们可以在左边画上Δ,或者是eg(代表example)。
对于修辞,我们在文中画出圈圈,或者在左边空白处写出具体的修辞手法。
下面是一个同学的实战标注,大家看下有什么可以学习并且改进的地方。
预览
预览
预览
其实在最开始,考生一定会觉得时间紧张,无法在速度和理解上达到平衡。怎么办?有两个办法:1)平时多加练习,采取限时阅读,复述大意,锻炼自己的短时记忆。在这个过程中,有些同学要改掉逐词阅读的习惯,逐步以词组,接着是半句,一句,甚至两行为单位进行快速阅读。在此过程中,大家一定要学会把握关键词。达到一定速度后,大家的视线甚至能够按照“Z”视线轨道进行快速阅读。2)大家一定要注意文章中的关键词。这些词可以帮助我们以块状来理解全文,提高效率。比如,大家都知道看到for example,后面是例子可以略看;看到furthermore后面是新的或者递进的观点。下面,我们再补充另外一些重点关键词:
1. 表示结论
in conclusion to conclude to sum up all in all
altogether as has been said finally in brief in other words
in short in summary on the whole therefore to summarize
2. 表示肯定程度
①表示非常肯定
certainly clearly obviously plainly apparently
surely undoubtedly naturally for certain for sure
of course never always indeed in fact
②表示有所保留
possibly perhaps likely probably potentially
presumably to some extend in a large sense in some sense in a sense
generally (speaking) normally ideally
3. 引出新观点
first second third finally
in the first place in the second place last but not least first of all
next another in addition additionally
further furthermore moreover also
likewise similarly more importantly imagine
suppose most importantly after all
for one thing...for another
4. 引出详细解释
specifically particularly for example for instance
in this case in that case as well as in that
such as in addition to as a illustration even
in other words in fact
5. 表示对照或其他观点
otherwise however nevertheless though
although but yet and yet
while meanwhile instead instead of
unlike on the contrary by contrast by comparison
in any case at any case in spite of rather than
on the one hand on the other hand even if even so
even though still anyway at the same time
but at the same time despite that apart from for all that
in contrast notwithstanding regardless
6. 表示论据出现
since because actually in fact
as a matter of fact as a result due to owing to
7. 表示推理
as a result accordingly consequently hence
thus ultimately thereby therefore
as a consequence if so if not according to
8. 表示反复说明
in other words briefly that is
9. 表示补充
again also and and then
besides equally important finally first
further furthermore in addition in the first place
last moreover next second
still too
10. 表示比较
also in the same way likewise similarly
11. 表示让步
naturally true of course indeed provided given granted admittedly
12. 表示时间顺序
after a while afterward again and then
as long as at last at length at that time
before earlier formerly in the past
last lately meanwhile next
now presently shortly simultaneously
since so far soon subsequently
then thereafter until now when
这些关键词词就像是路标,让我们知道了文章的走向。