2017年10月14日托福阅读考试全新预测

2017-10-10 17:33 来源:网络综合
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 天文类Surface Fluids on Venus and Earth
  参考阅读:
  A fluid is a substance, such as a liquid or gas, in which the component particles (usually molecules) can move past one another. Fluids flow easily and conform to the shape of their containers. The geologic processes related to the movement of fluids on a planet’s surface can completely resurface a planet many times. These processes derive their energy from the Sun and the gravitational forces of the planet itself. As these fluids interact with surface materials, they move particles about or react chemically with them to modify or produce materials. On a solid planet with a hydrosphere and an atmosphere, only a tiny fraction of the planetary mass flows as surface fluids. Yet the movements of these fluids can drastically alter a planet. Consider Venus and Earth, both terrestrial planets with atmosphere.
  Venus and Earth are commonly regarded as twin planets but not identical twins. They are about the same size, are composed of roughly the same mix of materials, and may have been comparably endowed at their beginning with carbon dioxide and water. However, the twins evolved differently, largely because of differences in their distance from the Sun. With a significant amount of internal heat, Venus may continue to be geologically active with volcanoes, rifting, and folding. However, it lacks any sign of a hydrologic system (water circulation and distribution): there are no streams, lakes, oceans, or glaciers. Space probes suggest that Venus may have started with as much water as Earth, but it was unable to keep its water in liquid form. Because Venus receives more heat from the Sun, water released from the interior evaporated and rose to the upper atmosphere where the Sun’s ultraviolet rays broke the molecules apart. Much of the freed hydrogen escaped into space, and Venus lost its water. Without water, Venus became less and less like Earth and kept an atmosphere filled with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide acts as a blanket, creating an intense greenhouse effect and driving surface temperatures high enough to melt lead and to prohibit the formation of carbonate minerals. Volcanoes continually vented more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. On Earth, liquid water removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and combines it with calcium, from rock weathering, to form carbonate sedimentary rocks. Without liquid water to remove carbon from the atmosphere, the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus remainshigh.
  Origin of the Solar System
  Comets
  文化艺术类
  The Origins of Writing
  Live Performance
  The Origins of Theater
  The Development of Printing
  地质类
  Early Theories of Continental Drift
  Attempts at Determining Earth’s Age
  How Soil is Formed
  Earth’s Energy Cycle
  Thermal Stratification
  环境类
  The Climate of Japan
  The Role of the Ocean in Controlling Climate
  经济类
  Effects of the Commercial Revolution
  Seventeenth-Century European Economic Growth
  考古类
  Environmental Impact of the Anasazi
  The Collapse of the Mays
  The Chaco Phenomenon
  科学类
  The Birth of Photography
  Early American Printing Industry
  农业类
  Agricultural Society in Eighteenth- Century British America
  Water Management in Early Agriculture
  社会类
  Population Growth in Nineteenth-Century Europe
  Hunting and the Setting of Inner Eurasia
  生物类
  Extinctions at the End of the Cretaceous
  The Cambrian Explosion
  The Extinction of the Dinosaurs
  How Animals in Rain Forests Make Themselves Heard
  Sociality in Animals
  Dinosaurs and Parental Care
  Habitat Selection
  Temperature Regulation in Marine Organisms
  Cell Theory
  Poikilotherms
  Forest Succession
  The Role of Diapause
  The Identification of the Genetic Material
  How Plants and Animals Arrived in the Hawaiian Islands
  Constraints on Natural Selection