主动语态与被动语态的转换规则

2017-12-19 15:36 来源:网络综合
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一、主动语态和被动语态概说


英语的语态分主动语态和被动语态,主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,而被动语态则表示主语是动作的承受者。被动语态由“助动词be+过去分词”构成:


Everybody likes him. 大家都喜欢他。 (主动语态)


He is liked by everybody. 他受到大家的喜欢。(被动语态) 


 


二、主动语态变被动语态的方法


1. 主动语态变被动语态的基本方法


将主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语,将主动谓语变为被动谓语(be+过去分词),将主动语态的主语变为by短语(在被动句中用作状语):


He broke the cup. → The cup was broken by him.


【注意】若不强调动词执行者,被动语态中的by短语通常可以省略:


He was born in 1986. 他生于1986年。


What is this flower called? 这种花叫什么花?


2. 双宾动词的被动语态


双宾动词即指带双宾语的动词,它们在变为被动语态时,通常是把间接宾语(指人)变为被动语态的主语,而把直接宾语(指事物)保留下来(称为保留宾语):


He answered me that question. → I was answered that question by him.


有的动词则通常把直接宾语(指事物)变为被动语态的主语,而把间接宾语改为介词to 或for引起的状语(到底用to还是for,与所搭配的动词有关):


He wrote her a letter. → A letter was written to her. (与动词write搭配用介词to)


She made him a new coat. → A new coat was made for him. (与动词make搭配用介词for)


有时以上两种方式均可用:


He gave her some money. 他给她一些钱。


→ She was given some money. / Some money was given to him.


He bought her a watch. 他给她买了一块表。


→ A watch was bought for her. / She was bought a watch. 


 


3. 被动语态的时态


被动语态的时态由被动结构“be+过去分词”中的动词be来体现,其基本结构和用法如下:


 


★(1) 一般现在时的被动语态:am [is, are]+过去分词


English is taught in our school. 我们学校学英语。


We are taken good care of at school. 我们在学校受到很好的照顾。


 


★(2) 一般过去时的被动语态:was [were]+过去分词


He was taken to the police station. 他被带到了警察局。


The house was built ten years ago. 这座房子是10年前建的。


 


★(3) 一般将来时的被动语态:will be+过去分词


A new building will be built here soon. 不久这里将建一栋新楼。


The meeting will be held at two this afternoon. 会议将于今天下午2点举行。


(4) 现在完成时的被动语态:have [has]been+过去分词


All the work has been done now. 所有的工作现在都做好了。


Have the letters been posted? 信都寄了吗?


(5) 过去完成时的被动语态:had been+过去分词


He said the work had been finished. 他说工作已完成了。


(6) 现在进行时的被动语态:am [is, are] being+过去分词


My watch is being repaired by him. 我的表正在由他修理。


The plan is now being discussed. 计划现在正在讨论。


(7) 过去进行时的被动语态:was [were] being+过去分词


He said that the man was being operated on. 他说那个人正在动手术。


He told me that a new station was being built. 他说正在修建一个新车站。


(8) 过去将来时的被动语态:would be+过去分词


He said that the meeting would be held next week. 他说会议将于下周举于。


 


★4. 含有情态动词的被动形式


若主动语态中谓语含有情态动词,在相应的被动语态中通常应保留该情态动词,其结构为“情态动词+be+过去分词”:


Everyone must know this. →This must be known by everyone.


请看以下带情态动词被动句实例:


This can’t be done in a short time. 这不是短期内可以完成的。


Can this be done by machine? 这可以由机器来做吗?


The work must be done at once. 这工作必须马上做了。