2018医学考博英语作文预测附范文及例句【1-3】

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【第一篇】

  “健康老龄化” 


  successful ageing / aging


  healthy ageing / aging


  老龄化,写成 ageing(英式英语)和 aging(美式英语)都可以。在写作中,请大家统一用其中的一种拼法,不要在同一篇作文里面出现两种拼法。


  “健康老龄化”,国际上最专业的提法是 successful ageing,大家写成 healthy ageing 也是可以的,国外很多针对老年人的保健养生网站都是用 Healthy ageing,但是世卫组织的官方提法是 successful ageing。


  关键词破解:“老人” 用英语怎么说?


  older adults


  senior citizens


  old population


  the aged


  the old


  old people(该表达正确,但是不建议,太业余)


  下面就健康老龄化这个主题,从原因及现状、内涵与定义、目的与举措这三个方面给大家总结了实用表达和万能句。


  老龄化的原因及现状


  1. The population in China is ageing rapidly.


  这是 “中国人口正在迅速老龄化” 之最最言简意赅、举重若轻的写法。一定要学会。


  2. People all over the world are living longer, but their chances of spending these later years in good health and well-being vary within and between countries.


  前半句描述现象,后半句顺势指出问题。行云流水大抵如此。


  3. The substantial increases in life expectancy at birth achieved over the previous century, combined with medical advances, escalating health and social care costs, and higher expectations for older age, have led to international interest in how to promote a healthier old age and how to age “successfully.”


  几个名词短语并列起来作句子主语,一下子就把人口老龄化的原因总结得太凝练了有木有!


  4. For too many, old age brings a high risk of social isolation and poverty, with limited access to affordable, high-quality health and social services.


  5. Strong public policies are thus needed to ensure that positive trends can be sustained and the benefits of a longer life can extend to everyone regardless of where they live or the socioeconomic group they belong to.


  6. For older adults, life was no longer based on ego or endeavors. Life was different.


  这个句子可以用在作文的最后一句,意犹未尽,回味无穷。


  7. Today, older adults are experiencing on average better overall health, lower disability rates, and greater economic security than previous generations, due in part to key national programs such as Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid. However, older adults often encounter challenges to their physical, mental, cognitive, and social health.


  此句条理清楚、逻辑严谨,想卖弄实力写长难句的学霸必背。


  健康老龄化的定义


  1. Never has there been such a spotlight on older adults, and we can use this moment to redefine what it means to experience healthy aging in China.


  这是一个很棒的过渡句,用于老龄化的原因和现状后,定义之前,无缝衔接,自然过渡。


  2. Successful aging refers to physical, mental and social well-being in older age.


  这句话简单实用好操作,学霸学渣都要收!


  3. Recent studies emphasize the importance of adaptation and emotional well-being in successful aging. New data suggests that for most senior citizens, subjective quality of life is more important than the absence of disease and other objective measures relating to physical and mental health.


  4. There are a few investigations into older people's views of what is successful ageing. Their definitions include mental, psychological, physical, and social health; functioning and resources; life satisfaction; having a sense of purpose; financial security; learning new things; accomplishments; physical appearance; productivity; contribution to life; sense of humour; and spirituality.


  面版本的“健康老龄化”定义。


  5. Additionally, recent studies have shown that for most senior citizens, subjective quality of life is strongly tied with psychosocial protective traits such as resilience, optimism, and mental and emotional status.


  健康老龄化的目的与举措


  1. Therefore, all sectors must be engaged in planning for the opportunities of a growing population of older adults to ensure people are not only adding years to life, but life to years.


  2. One important outcome of the conference was the administration's announcement of the evelopment of a report to advance healthy aging with a national strategy.


  3. The Strategy’s aim is to increase the length of people’s lives and ensure their lives are healthy and productive.


  此句地道实用有好记,必收。


  4. The vision of the Strategy is working together to improve the health and quality of life for individuals, families, and communities by moving the country from a mindset focused on sickness and disease to one based on prevention and wellness.


  学会了吗,提到“目的、目标” 不要老是用 goal,试试 vision。vision 是什么意思?vision 就是“愿景”!


  5. A person's ability to interact with others has been consistently viewed as vitally important to successful aging.


  6. Many researchers have believed that social relationships have become the single most important factor in measuring a person's psychological well-being or happiness.


  7. These healthy aging actions were identified based on a review of the scientific literature and consultation with experts in the fields of aging and public health, as well as experts from medical fields.



【第二篇】

  请大家在 50 分钟之内,按医学博士英语统考作文部分的要求完成下面的作文。


  Part V Writing (20%)


  Directions: In this part there is an essay in Chinese. Read it carefully and then write a summary of 200 words in English on the ANSWER SHEET. Make sure that your summary covers the major points of the passage.


  滥用抗生素的危害


  抗生素滥用已成为世界范围内公共卫生领域的重大问题。除污染环境、威胁人体健康外,因产生耐药性而出现的 “超级细菌”,是目前最令人担心的问题。


  开发一个新药一般需要 10 年左右时间,而一代耐药菌的产生往往只需要两年。抗生素滥用情况加重,最终会导致“超级细菌”横行。按照目前耐药情况的发展趋势,我国很有可能成为最先陷入超级细菌频生、最终无抗生素可用境地的国家之一。因为细菌变异速度太快,一些国家不得不通过政府出资来推动解决这一问题。


  专家说,尽管地表水中抗生素的浓度比医用剂量低得多,但长期不间断地排放,会污染地下水和土壤,进而污染食物。人和动物置身其中,很可能感染耐药菌。


  有关资料显示,截至 2017 年我国 7 岁以下儿童因为不合理使用抗生素造成耳聋的数量多达 30 万人,占耳聋儿童总数的 30%~40%,而一些发达国家却只占 0.9%。


  据调查,农村是抗生素滥用的重灾区,不论是养殖业还是医疗用药,都普遍存在盲目使用抗生素的问题。滥用抗生素会损伤肝肾,产生不良反应,导致人体菌群失调免疫力下降。


  一般说来,滥用抗生素有四大危害。


  第一,毒副作用。


  是药三分毒,应严格遵照医嘱服药,切不可盼复心切,擅自加大抗菌药物 (包括抗生素和人工合成的抗菌药,如氟哌酸) 的药量,否则很可能损伤神经系统、肾脏、血液系统。尤其是对肝肾功能出现异常的患者,更要慎重。需要强调的是,一般来说,轻度上呼吸道感染选用口服抗生素即可,但很多人却选择了静脉输液,这无形中也增加了出现副作用的风险。


  第二,过敏反应。


  多发生在具有特异性体质的人身上,其表现以过敏性休克最为严重。青霉素、链霉素都可能引发,其中青霉素最常见也更为严重。过敏反应严重时可能致命。


  第三,二重感染。


  当用抗菌药物抑制或杀死敏感的细菌后,有些不敏感的细菌或霉菌却继续生长繁殖,造成新的感染,这就是 “二重感染”。这在长期滥用抗菌药物的病人中很多见。因此治疗困难,病死率高。


  第四,耐药


  由于细菌的进化永远不会停止,因而对任何抗生素都会有产生耐药性的可能。抗菌药物的滥用正让我们付出巨大的代价,药品不良反应、药源性疾病大量增加,越来越多的细菌对抗药品的能量不断增大,例如幽门螺旋杆菌,对喹诺酮类药品的耐药性,已经升至百分之八十二。而且由于药物长期刺激,使一部分致病菌产生变异、成为耐药菌株。这种耐药性既会被其他细菌所获得,也会遗传给下一代。“超级细菌” 很大程度上就是抗菌药物滥用催生出来的。如果这种情况继续恶化下去,很可能使人类面临感染时无药可用的境地。


  第一,关于作文的标题,记住两点:


  如果中文原文有标题,那我们的作文也应该拟一个对应的英文标题;


  英文标题中,除了介词,其他所有单词都应首字母大写。


  之前给大家预测的抗生素滥用这篇文章的中文标题是 “滥用抗生素的危害”,那么用英文我们可以写成:


  Hazards of Antibiotic Abuse


  这个标题中,hazards 也可以写成 dangers。


   到了考场上,遇到关键词不会写也不要慌,要想办法变通,abuse(滥用)这个词不会,用 overuse(过度使用)来替代,确实意思有偏差,比较勉强,但是如果我们 overuse 的在后面追加一个 misuse(乱用),即 overuse and misuse 联手,大体上也敌得过 abuse 了。


  第二,下面,就抗生素滥用(antibiotic abuse)这个主题,从定义、现状、原因、危害、举措这个五个方面为大家整理了实用的、可套用的句子。这些句子全部选自主流外媒,严谨、地道。


  定 义


  Antibiotic misuse, sometimes called antibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse, refers to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics, with potentially serious effects on health.


  It is a contributing factor to the development of antibiotic resistance, including the creation of multidrug-resistant bacteria, informally called "super bugs", which can develop resistance to multiple antibiotics and cause life-threatening infections.


  现 状


  Antibiotic resistance is one of the world's most pressing health problems. According to a recent survey, up to one-third to one-half of antibiotic use in humans is unnecessary or inappropriate.


  The rapid emergence of resistant bacteria is occurring worldwide, endangering the efficacy of antibiotics, which have transformed medicine and saved millions of lives. Many decades after the first patients were treated with antibiotics, bacterial infections have again become a threat.


  Antibiotics are drugs used for treating infections caused by bacteria. Also known as antimicrobial drugs, antibiotics have saved countless lives. Misuse and overuse of these drugs, however, have contributed to a phenomenon known as antibiotic resistance. This resistance develops when potentially harmful bacteria change in a way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of antibiotics.


  Antibiotics have been commonly available since the 1940s, and have done wonders at saving patients with infections ranging from pneumonia to sexually spread diseases. But bacteria have increasingly gained the power to shrug off antibiotics.


  原 因


  The overuse of antibiotics — especially taking antibiotics even when they're not the appropriate treatment — promotes antibiotic resistance. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, up to one-third to one-half of antibiotic use in humans is unnecessary or inappropriate.


  Experts say chances of resistance increase when antibiotics are not used long enough or are taken for the wrong reasons, allowing bacteria to survive and adapt.


  Livestock producers routinely give antibiotics to animals to make them grow faster or help them survive crowded, stressful, and unsanitary conditions. When these drugs are overused—by humans or animals—some bacteria become antibiotic-resistant, threatening the future effectiveness of these medicines. Public-health officials say antibiotic resistance is one of the leading human health threats of our time.


  There has been massive use of antibiotics in animal husbandry. The most abundant use of antimicrobials worldwide are in livestock; they are typically distributed in animal feed or water for purposes such as disease prevention and growth promotion.


  Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics and insufficient infection control in health care facilities can contribute to drug resistance and put patients at risk for deadly infections, like C. difficile-associated diarrhea.


  危 害


  Overuse is one reason antibiotics are losing their punch, making infections harder to treat.


  Frequent and inappropriate use of antibiotics can cause bacteria or other microbes to change so antibiotics don’t work against them. This is called bacterial resistance or antibiotic resistance. Treating these resistant bacteria requires higher doses of medicine or stronger antibiotics. Because of antibiotic overuse, certain bacteria have become resistant to even the most powerful antibiotics available today.


  Antibiotic resistance is a widespread problem, and one that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) calls "one of the world's most pressing public health problems." Bacteria that were once highly responsive to antibiotics have become more and more resistant. Among those that are becoming harder to treat are pneumococcal infections (which cause pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections, and meningitis), skin infections, and tuberculosis.


  In addition to antibiotic resistance, overusing antibiotics can lead to other problems. Antibiotics kill many different bacteria, even the good ones that help keep the body healthy. Sometimes taking antibiotics can cause a person to develop diarrhea due to a lack of good bacteria that help digest food properly. In some cases, bad bacteria, like Clostridium difficile (or C diff), may overgrow and cause infections.


  举 措


  Now more than ever is the time for public health authorities and health care facilities to work together. Health departments, track and alert health care facilities to drug-resistant outbreaks in their area. Health care facilities, work with public health authorities to share information about antibiotic-resistant germs and C. difficile to stop their spread.


  With effective infection control and antibiotic stewardship efforts, we could save 37,000 lives over five years.



【第三篇】

  请大家在 50 分钟之内,按医学博士英语统考作文部分的要求完成下面的作文。中途不得查词典、不得百度,要模拟自己是在考试,逼一逼自己,写不出来也要硬写。


  Part V Writing (20%)


  Directions: In this part there is an essay in Chinese. Read it carefully and then write a summary of 200 words in English on the ANSWER SHEET. Make sure that your summary covers the major points of the passage.


  流感与普通感冒的区别


  流感是由流感病毒引起的,经飞沫传播的急性呼吸道传染性疾病。早春,由于气候变化比较大,早晚温差大,人体不能完全适应气候的变化,容易感冒。同时,春天天气转暖,气温回升明显,万物复苏,病毒、细菌等病原微生物也活跃起来,所以,在冬春交替的时候,比较容易患上流感。那么流感与普通感冒有什么区别呢?


  第一,两种疾病的病原体不同。普通感冒,俗称 “伤风”,是由多种病毒引起的,其中相当部分是由某种血清型的鼻病毒引起。流感由流感病毒引起,流感病毒包括甲型、乙型和丙型三种;普通感冒可由多种病原体引起,如鼻病毒、腺病毒、细菌及支原体等,一般人在受凉、雨淋、过度疲劳后,因抵抗力下降时容易发病。


  第二,两种疾病的表现症状不同。与流感相比,普通感冒主要表现为打喷嚏、流鼻涕等上呼吸道症状,全身症状较轻,不发热或仅有低热,一般 3 至 5 天痊愈。流感的表现全身症状较重,突然畏寒、发热、头痛、全身酸痛、鼻塞、流涕、干咳、胸痛、恶心、食欲不振,婴幼儿或老年人可能并发肺炎或心力衰竭。中毒型流感病人则表现为高热、说胡话、昏迷、抽搐,有时可以导致人死亡。


  第三,流感与普通感冒的传染性不同。流感病毒存在于病人的呼吸道,在病人咳嗽、打喷嚏时经飞沫传染给别人,流感的传染性很强,由于这种病毒容易变异,即使是患过流感的人,当下次再遇上流感流行,仍然会感染,所以流感容易引起暴发性流行。普通感冒较流感传染性要弱得多,往往是个别出现,很少像流感流行那样病人成批大量出现。


  第四,流感与普通感冒的流行特点不同。流感的流行有明显的季节性和周期性,常易发生暴发、流行甚至大流行。流行季节常在某些局限的范围,如社区或单位发生暴发;当新的亚型产生时则可出现大流行甚至世界性大流行,如目前流行的甲型 H1N1 流感。普通感冒只是个别散发出现。


  第五,流感有季节性和周期性。在温带和寒温带地区,流感的流行通常发生在冬春季,而在热带和亚 热带地区,则更多是在夏季流行。大流行时季节性不明显。由于甲型流感病毒抗原的易变性、人类对流感免疫的不持久性及流感疫苗的有限性,致使流感流行呈现周期特点,一般 3 至 4 年一次小流行,10 至 15 年一次大流行。乙型、丙型流感周期性不明显。


  第六,在一定条件下,流感可能大流行或暴发。当流感病毒发生变异产生新的亚型时,由于人群普遍缺乏免疫力,可以发生跨越一省、一国、一个大洲,乃至遍及全世界的流行,称为大流行或世界大流行。在流感流行季节经常会发生在一个局部地区或单位,特别是学校和托幼机构,短时间内突然有很多人发病称为暴发。


  第七,选择药物的不同。在现实生活中,很多人认为只要患了流感或普通感冒就要使用抗菌药物治疗,其实不然。抗菌药物对病毒无效,滥用抗菌药物不但不能带来治疗效果,还会导致大量耐药菌株出现。一般而言,普通感冒时除非出现黄脓鼻涕或黄痰,并伴有发热,不宜自行服用抗菌药物;在明确有细菌感染或有并发症时,需在医生的指导下选择抗菌药物。


  第八,治疗基本原则不同。普通感冒,目前尚无特殊抗病毒药物,该病为自限性,病程多在 1 周左右,无严重症状者可不用或少用药,以对症处理、休息、忌烟、多饮水、保持室内空气流通、防治继发细菌感染为原则。如后期并发细菌感染,可根据病原菌选用敏感的抗菌药物。常选青霉素、第一代头孢菌素、大环内酯类或氟喹诺酮类。坚持有规律的适合个体的体育活动、增强体质、劳逸适度、生活规律,是预防普通感冒的方法。


  第九,预防措施不同。普通感冒,没有预防用疫苗。流感,接种流感疫苗是防控有效手段。需强调的是,对流行性感冒要做到早发现、早报告、早隔离和早治疗。


  答案及范文例句和写作思路


  无论这个主题的作文怎么出,有一些核心的东西总是必须要掌握的,比如“流感”这个关键词怎么写,比如怎么描述症状,如何治疗、诊断和预防,比如怎么和普通感冒进行对比等等。


  关键词破解:“流感” 和 “普通感冒” 用英语怎么说?


  流感:influenza,或 the flu


  普通感冒:the common cold,或 the cold


  “流感和普通感冒的区别” 可以写成:


  the difference between influenza and the common cold


  今天的内容分成三块:


  第一,流感相关的英文表达,包括定义、症状、并发症、高风险人群、预防、诊断和治疗。


  第二,普通感冒相关的英文表达,包括定义、症状、高风险人群、病因等。


  第三,流感和普通感冒的区别。


  第一部分:流感 Key Facts About Influenza (Flu)


  1. 流感的定义


  Influenza (the flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness. Serious outcomes of flu infection can result in hospitalization or death. Some people, such as older people, young children, and people with certain health conditions, are at high risk of serious flu complications.


  2. 流感的症状


  People who have the flu often feel some or all of these signs and symptoms that usually start suddenly, not gradually:


  Fever* or feeling feverish/chills


  Cough


  Sore throat


  Runny or stuffy nose


  Muscle or body aches


  Headaches


  Fatigue (very tired)


  Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea, though this is more common in young children than in adults.


  * It’s important to note that not everyone with flu will have a fever.


  3. 流感的并发症(Complications)


  The flu is dangerous because it can quickly lead to serious complications such as bronchitis and pneumonia, and even death. It can also make chronic conditions such as asthma and congestive heart failure worse.


  4. 流感高风险人群(People at High Risk from Flu)


  People at high risk for developing serious flu complications include young children, people over 65, pregnant women and those with chronic health conditions such as asthma, diabetes or heart and lung disease.


  5. 流感的预防


  In terms of flu prevention, the best defense against the flu is to get vaccinated. Experts also recommend everyday preventive actions, such as staying away from people who are sick, covering coughs and sneezes and frequent handwashing, to help slow the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses.


  6. 流感的诊断


  It is very difficult to distinguish the flu from other viral or bacterial causes of respiratory illnesses on the basis of symptoms alone. There are tests available to diagnose flu.


  7. 流感的治疗


  There are influenza antiviral drugs that can be used to treat flu illness.


  第二部分:关于普通感冒 Key Facts About The Common Cold


  1. 普通感冒的定义 What is the common cold(or the cold)?


  The common cold is the most widespread acute respiratory tract illness affecting all age groups. Many types of viruses can cause a common cold.


  2. 普通感冒的症状(Symptoms)


  Symptoms of a common cold usually appear one to three days after exposure to a cold-causing virus. Signs and symptoms, which can vary from person to person, might include:


  Runny or stuffy nose


  Sore throat


  Cough


  Congestion


  Slight body aches or a mild headache


  Sneezing


  Low-grade fever


  Generally feeling unwell (malaise)


  3. 普通感冒的高风险人群


  Children younger than six are at greatest risk of colds, but healthy adults can also expect to have two or three colds annually.


  Most people recover from a common cold in a week or 10 days. Symptoms might last longer in people who smoke. If symptoms don't improve, see your doctor.


  4. 普通感冒的病因 Causes


  Although many types of viruses can cause a common cold, rhinoviruses are the most common culprit.


  A cold virus enters human body through one's mouth, eyes or nose. The virus


  can spread through droplets in the air when someone who is sick coughs, sneezes or talks. It also spreads by hand-to-hand contact with someone who has a cold or by sharing contaminated objects, such as utensils, towels, toys or telephones.


  5. 普通感冒的并发症 Complications


  Acute ear infection (otitis media).


  Asthma. A cold can trigger an asthma attack.


  Acute sinusitis. In adults or children, a common cold that doesn't resolve can lead to inflammation and infection of the sinuses (sinusitis).


  Other secondary infections. These include strep throat (streptococcal pharyngitis), pneumonia, and croup or bronchiolitis in children. These infections need to be treated by a doctor.


  第三部分:普通感冒和流感的区别


  The Difference between the Common Cold and the Flu


  1. The flu comes on abruptly; the cold is more gradual.


  2. Unlike the common cold, the onset of symptoms for flu (or Influenza) is very sudden and fast.


  3. The common cold eventually fizzles, but the flu may be deadly.


  4. In general, the flu is worse than the common cold, and symptoms are more common and intense.


  5. Flu causes epidemics and pandemics with the potential for mortality, whereas the common cold is a nuisance for us.


  6. October marks the beginning of a new influenza season. While common cold is generally a mild and uncomplicated disease, influenza can cause severe disease leading to hospitalization and occasionally death, especially older people, pregnant women, young children and people with chronic diseases.


  7. The common symptoms of cold and flu lead to the confusion among these two terms and sometimes flu is neglected mistaking it as a common cold. Both are viral infections, but flu can be epidemic and pandemic with the potential for mortality.


  8. Symptoms of common cold and influenza are similar and their mode of transmission also resembles, but yet they are two different diseases. Common cold being the less infectious and self-limiting is not taken very seriously, whereas influenza, associated with the complete respiratory tract can be fatal in it’s sever forms.


  9. Because colds and the flu share many symptoms, it can be difficult to tell the difference between them based on symptoms alone. Special tests that usually must be done within the first few days of illness can tell if a person has the flu.


  10. Colds also don’t generally lead to the serious health complications that can come with flu and that in some cases can be deadly.