新SAT官方指南解读:新旧SAT文法之对比解析

2017-8-14 13:42:00   三立在线教育     [ 手机版 ] [ 文档预览 ] [ 文档下载 ]
SAT网权威发布《新SAT官方指南解读:新旧SAT文法之对比解析》(全文共13603字),更多新SAT官方指南解读相关文档资源请访问无忧考网SAT频道。

【导语】以下是无忧考网联合三立在线教育整理的新旧SAT文法之对比解析,希望对准考参加考试的同学有所帮助!

新SAT文法的目的:
考察学生编辑和修改不同类型的文章的能力。既要让所修改的文章避免各种语法错误、标点错误、和用法错误,也要使其能够按照写作目的和读者受众的不同,更加准确的表辞达意。
为了综合检验学生的编辑修改能力,考试时所采用的文章的体裁、主题与复杂程度都有所不同。某些文章还配有统计图表,需要学生具有一定的图表解说能力。具体情况如下:
文章的体裁:记叙文、说明文、议论文。
文章的主题:包罗万有,例如:事业、人文社科、历史、科技,等等。
文章的复杂程度:有直截了当的,也有含蓄表达的,更有充斥长难句的。
文章的说明性图表:与原文内容互相补充,学生需要解读图表来纠正文章错误。
新SAT文法的主要考察形式:
试题的格式如下图所示:左边是需要编辑修改的文章,右边是相应的题目。因为左右需要完美对应,所以一篇文章会出现在多页纸上。考生需要看清楚文章标题上面所列出的与该文章相关的题目个数。(例如:本文的标题是A Life in Traffic, 与之相关的题目是第1题到第11题)。划线部分是出题处。
题目的类型都是单选题,A、B、C、D四项之中选择一个答案。表面上看,题目的内容五花八门,但是实质上只考察学生的两种能力:语法能力(Standard English Conventions)和表达能力(Expression of Ideas)。从形式上看,题目分为两类。一类题目是下图中第二题这种题目:A选项是NO CHANGE, 其他三个选项是修改划线处的三种不同建议。另一类题目是下图种第一题这种题目:首先给出了一个要求,然后让学生按照要求为文中划线处选择一个答案。
题目
新SAT文法小常识:


项目

内容

题目

44题;4篇文章,每篇11题。

时间

35分钟;每篇文章阅读和做题加起来也只有8分钟啊!

文章长度

共1700词,每篇文章400~450词

文章体裁

1篇记叙文、1-2篇说明文、1-2篇议论文

文章主题

事业、人文社科、历史、科技各一篇

文章难度

美国9-10年级水平和高中水平的文章

分数类型

l 总分
l 表达(Expression of Ideas): 24题,每篇文章6题
l 语法(Standard English Conventions): 20题,每篇5题
l 寻证(Command of Evidence): 8题,每篇2题
l 词义(Words in Context): 8题,每篇2题
l 历史、社科分析:6题
l 科技分析:6题
[题目可有多维度。]

新SAT的指示说明:
Writing and Language Test:
35 MINUTES, 44 QUESTIONS
Turn to Section 2 of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section。
DIRECTIONS
Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions。
Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole。
After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a “NO CHANGE” option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is。
样题详解见下页。
共有两套样题:SAMPLE 1和SAMPLE 2。
样题1 (SAMPLE 1)—Careers Passage with Graphic
Questions 1 through 11 are based on the following passage and supplementary material。
A Life in Traffic
A subway system is expanded to provide service to a growing suburb. A bike sharing program is adopted to encourage nonmotorized transportation. _1_ To alleviate rush hour traffic jams in a congested downtown area, stoplight timing is coordinated. When any one of these changes _2_ occur, it is likely the result of careful analysis conducted by transportation planners。
The work of transportation planners generally includes evaluating current transportation needs, assessing the effectiveness of existing facilities, and improving those facilities or _3_ they design new ones. Most transportation planners work in or near cities, _4_ but some are employed in rural areas. Say, for example, a large factory is built on the outskirts of a small town. Traffic to and from that location would increase at the beginning and end of work shifts. The transportation _5_ planner’s job, might involve conducting a traffic count to determine the daily number of vehicles traveling on the road to the new factory. If analysis of the traffic count indicates that there is more traffic than the _6_ current road as it is designed at this time can efficiently accommodate, the transportation planner might recommend widening the road to add another lane. _1_
Which choice best maintains the sentence pattern already established in the paragraph?
A) NO CHANGE
B) Coordinating stoplight timing can help alleviate rush hour traffic jams in a congested downtown area。
C) Stoplight timing is coordinated to alleviate rush hour traffic jams in a congested downtown area。
D) In a congested downtown area, stoplight timing is coordinated to alleviate rush hour traffic jams。
_2_
A) NO CHANGE
B) occur, they are
C) occurs, they are
D) occurs, it is
_3_
A) NO CHANGE
B) to design
C) designing
D) design
_4_
Which choice results in the most effective transition to the information that follows in the paragraph?
A) NO CHANGE
B) where job opportunities are more plentiful。
C) and the majority are employed by government agencies。
D) DELETE the underlined portion and end the sentence with a period。
_5_
A) NO CHANGE
B) planner’s job
C) planners job,
D) planners job
_6_
A) NO CHANGE
B) current design of the road right now
C) road as it is now currently designed
D) current design of the road
Transportation planners work closely with a number of community stakeholders, such as government officials and other interested organizations and individuals. _7_ Next, representatives from the local public health department might provide input in designing a network of trails and sidewalks to encourage people to walk more. _8_ According to the American Heart Association, walking provides numerous benefits related to health and well-being. Members of the Chamber of Commerce might share suggestions about designing transportation and parking facilities to support local businesses。
_9_ People who pursue careers in transportation planning have a wide variety of educational backgrounds. A two year degree in transportation technology may be sufficient for some entry level jobs in the field. Most jobs, however, require at least a bachelor’s degree; majors of transportation planners are _10_ varied, including fields such as urban studies, civil engineering, geography, or transportation and logistics management. For many positions in the field, a master’s degree is required。
Transportation planners perform critical work within the broader field of urban and regional planning. As of 2010, there were approximately 40,300 urban and regional planners employed in the United States. The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasts steady job growth in this field, _11_ projecting that 16 percent of new jobs in all occupations will be related to urban and regional planning. Population growth and concerns about environmental sustainability are expected to spur the need for transportation planning professionals。
_7_
A) NO CHANGE
B) For instance,
C) Furthermore,
D) Similarly,
_8_
The writer is considering deleting the underlined sentence. Should the sentence be kept or deleted?
A) Kept, because it provides supporting evidence about the benefits of walking。
B) Kept, because it provides an additional example of a community stakeholder with whom transportation planners work。
C) Deleted, because it blurs the paragraph’s focus on the community stakeholders with whom transportation planners work。
D) Deleted, because it doesn’t provide specific examples of what the numerous benefits of walking are。
_9_
A) NO CHANGE
B) People, who pursue careers in transportation planning,
C) People who pursue careers, in transportation planning,
D) People who pursue careers in transportation planning,
_10_
A) NO CHANGE
B) varied, and including
C) varied and which include
D) varied, which include
_11_
Which choice completes the sentence with accurate data based on the graph?
A) NO CHANGE
B) warning, however, that job growth in urban and regional planning will slow to 14 percent by 2020.
C) predicting that employment of urban and regional planners will increase 16 percent between 2010 and 2020.
D) indicating that 14 to 18 percent of urban and regional planning positions will remain unfilled。
图表
第1题:问哪一个选项的保留了原文已经有的句式格式。
做题方法:好吧,那就先看看第1题前面都已经有了什么句式格式。一看发现,哦,两个被动形式的主谓宾句子。先说地铁系统被延展,以便于能够怎怎样;然后说自行车道项目被采纳,以便于能够怎怎样。那么好吧,我们愉快的选中C, stoplight timing 被coordinated, 以便于能够怎怎样。Bingo!选对了!我之所以翻译得很模糊是因为:亲,这句话咱真心不需要全懂就可以做对哦!(有70%的题目不需要全懂就能做对,别说我没有告诉你啊!我告诉你,你别说你没有惊喜啊!你惊喜之后会发现,另外的30%保证让你上名校啊!)
第2题:问都没问,肯定考语法
When any one of these changes occur, it is likely the result of careful analysis conducted by transportation planners。
语法点:主谓搭配+代词
这道题太简单了,考试的时候题目一定不能这么慷慨善良。occur的主语是any one of something, 明显主语是单数,时态又是一般现在时,所以谓语动词occur分分钟应该变形成为occurs啊!C与D的区别在代词上,既然都知道any one of something是单数了,那么它的代词一定是it而不能是they啊!这么简单的题目,答案是D别说我没有告诉你,简直要把我蠢哭了呀!
第3题:问都没问,肯定考语法
The work of transportation planners generally includes evaluating current transportation needs, assessing the effectiveness of existing facilities, and improving those facilities or they design new ones。
语法点:and, or并列
and和or就傻呵呵的站在那里,赤裸裸的提示你这里是并列,后面的成分和模样都应该和前面相同。此情此景,你再看不出答案是C,我就真是没有办法了。
实在不知道?给你两道原来的语法老题尝尝。
Every August, Cody and Ally vacation in Hiawatha National Forest, where they enjoy hiking, fishing and to camp with their friends. (本题只给了正确答案)
(B) where they enjoy hiking, fishing and camping
Used in sculpture, carving is the process of reducing substances such as stone, wood, or ivory to a desired shape by cutting or to chip away unnecessary parts. No error
[Correction: to chip chipping]
现在总算看出来了吧?还是人家老题难(这哪可能呢?),说明新SAT真题一定比OG难!
第4题:问哪一种写法导致上下文之间的过渡
做题方法:既然是过渡,就要同时兼顾上下文的意思。上文说在城市里面工作,下文的for example又说了城市的边缘“outskirts of a small town”。所以,划线部分必须体现城市边缘、郊区、农村等意思。那么就只有A的“rural areas”还可以,立刻选它!
第5题:问都没问,肯定考语法
语法点:标点符号+所有者形式
标点符号是纯考眼神儿啊!C选项有多么的扯,主谓之间加逗号,他以为咱是领导,说话的中间喝那一口水啊!主谓之间如果没有分隔成分,是绝对不能加逗号滴!所以C选项挂掉啦!其他选项中,能够表示“策划者的工作”这种所有者形式的只有B,那就选它了。这样的难度,真是侮辱我们的智商啊!请大家息怒,接着往下做。
第6题:问都没问,肯定考语法
…there is more traffic than the current road as it is designed at this time can efficiently accommodate,
语法点:比较+简洁
这道题貌似是比较题目,因为有“more…than”结构,但是一看选项,根本不是考比较。考的是简洁表达。要表达,就要知道意思。意思是说:实际的交通量比现在的道路能够承载的交通量要大。那么,最简洁的表达只能是D,因为其他的都太啰嗦。A选项中”current”与“at this time,”B选项中“current” 与“right now”, C选项中 “now”与“currently”都是啰嗦重复的词语,因此D顺利入选。从比较的层面说,D也不是十分优美,怎么都有一种“如花”身边选“秋香”的感觉,真是“矬子里拔大个儿”吧。(看不懂最后这则歇后语的同学,可以认真请教东北的同学^_^)。
第7题:问都没问,肯定考语法
嘿嘿!真打脸!人家没有考语法,人家考文法啦!看上下行文中间的过渡词咱到底会不会。
前面那句话说要与社区重要决策人(community stakeholders)通力合作,下面那句话就说到了当地民众健康部门的代表(representatives from the local public health department)。显然,这代表就是一种决策人啊,因此后面这句话是例证啊,因此必须选择B啊!文法的选择,一定要看得懂意思啊!这是难度的增加。咱要假设这文章是咱写的,才能一下子找到正确答案。(要站在作者的高度上。)
第8题:问一句话是删是留
这句话必须删啊!全段说各种人是怎样通力合作的,这句话说散步有益健康,简直驴唇不对他嘴啊!果断删掉,果断选择C(哈哈!我突然看到D选项,太搞笑了,大家快看!哈哈哈)
第9题:问都没问,肯定考语法
People who pursue careers in transportation planning have a wide variety of educational backgrounds。
语法点:句式结构
一句话要先保证有主句,然后再考虑从句。B,C,D的从句连接词who瞬间把主句“贪污”成了从句,主句没有了,那怎么行?所以,从主句出发,果断选择A。
第10题:问都没问,肯定考语法
majors of transportation planners are varied, including fields such as urban studies, civil engineering, geography, or transportation and logistics management。
语法点:ing短语+and并列+从句连接词
这句话后面的“urban studies, civil engineering, geography, or transportation and logistics management”作为例证用来支持前面所说的专业五花八门“varied”这个结论,因此and用来并列并不恰当, B, C砍掉。D的which需要指代一个名词先行词,显然”varied”词性都不达标,所以,选择A,是现在分词短语在句尾进行的补充说明。
第11题:如图,哪个选项的数据正确
这道题目是分析图表,分分钟数学统计题目,简单到可以笑到天亮啊!
在统计柱形图的题目中说了“percent increase”,而B选项居然敢说“slow”,这么逆天的选项分分钟揭示了美国的平均数学水平。有关于”urban and regional”的应该是16%的柱形,而D居然把三个柱子的14%到18%都拿来说一遍,简直是全面到立刻错误啊!A选项的“all occupations”明明是14%,与他所说的16%不符。所以,答案就是C。 新题型,难度低,低到我会害怕忍不住多看几眼,生怕自己不够头脑简单啊!这,也是一种忧患啊!做完了1到11题,该做下一套题了!
样题2 (SAMPLE 2)—Humanities Passage
Questions 12 through 22 are based on the following passage。
Dong Kingman: Painter of Cities
A 1954 documentary about renowned watercolor painter Dong Kingman shows the artist sitting on a stool on Mott Street in New York City’s Chinatown. A crowd of admiring spectators _12_ watched as Kingman squeezes dollops of paint from several tubes into a tin watercolor _13_ box, from just a few primary colors, Kingman creates dozens of beautiful hues as he layers the translucent paint onto the paper on his easel. Each stroke of the brush and dab of the sponge transforms thinly sketched outlines into buildings, shop signs, and streetlamps. The street scene Kingman begins composing in this short film is very much in keeping with the urban landscapes for which he is best known。
[1] Kingman was keenly interested in landscape painting from an early age. [2] In Hong Kong, where Kingman completed his schooling, teachers at that time customarily assigned students a formal “school name。” [3] His interest was so keen, in fact, that he was named after it. [4] The young boy who had been Dong Moy Shu became Dong Kingman. [5] The name Kingman was selected for its two _14_ parts, “king” and “man”; Cantonese for “scenery” and “composition。” [6] As Kingman developed as a painter, his works were often compared to _15_ paintings by Chinese landscape artists dating back to C E 960, a time when a strong tradition of landscape painting emerged in Chinese art. [7] Kingman, however, _16_ vacated from that tradition in a number of ways, most notably in that he chose to focus not on natural landscapes, such as mountains and rivers, but on cities. _17_ _12_
A) NO CHANGE
B) had watched
C) would watch
D) watches
_13_
A) NO CHANGE
B) box. From just a few primary colors,
C) box from just a few primary colors,
D) box, from just a few primary colors
_14_
A) NO CHANGE
B) parts: “king” and “man,”
C) parts “king” and “man”;
D) parts; “king” and “man”
_15_
A) NO CHANGE
B) Chinese landscape artists
C) painters of Chinese landscapes
D) artists
_16_
A) NO CHANGE
B) evacuated
C) departed
D) retired
_17_
To make this paragraph most logical, sentence 3 should be placed
A) where it is now。
B) before sentence 1.
C) after sentence 1.
D) after sentence 4.
_18_ His fine brushwork conveys detailed street-level activity: a peanut vendor pushing his cart on the sidewalk, a pigeon pecking for crumbs around a fire _19_ hydrant, an old man tending to a baby outside a doorway. His broader brush strokes and sponge-painted shapes create majestic city skylines, with skyscrapers towering in the background, bridges connecting neighborhoods on either side of a river, and _20_ delicately painted creatures, such as a tiny, barely visible cat prowling in the bushes of a park. To art critics and fans alike, these city scenes represent the innovative spirit of twentieth-century urban Modernism。
_18_
Which choice most effectively establishes the main topic of the paragraph?
A) Kingman is considered a pioneer of the California Style school of painting。
B) Although cities were his main subject, Kingman did occasionally paint natural landscapes。
C) In his urban landscapes, Kingman captures the vibrancy of crowded cities。
D) In 1929 Kingman moved to Oakland, California, where he attended the Fox Art School。
_19_
A) NO CHANGE
B) hydrant—
C) hydrant:
D) hydrant
_20_
The writer wants to complete the sentence with a third example of a detail Kingman uses to create his majestic city skylines. Which choice best accomplishes this goal?
A) NO CHANGE
B) exquisitely lettered street and storefront signs。
C) other details that help define Kingman’s urban landscapes。
D) enormous ships docking at busy urban ports。
During his career, Kingman exhibited his work _21_ internationally. He garnered much acclaim. In 1936, a critic described one of Kingman’s solo exhibits as “twenty of the freshest, most satisfying watercolors that have been seen hereabouts in many a day。” _22_ _21_
Which choice most effectively combines the sentences at the underlined portion?
A) internationally, and Kingman also garnered
B) internationally; from exhibiting, he garnered
C) internationally but garnered
D) internationally, garnering
_22_
The writer wants to conclude the passage with a sentence that emphasizes an enduring legacy of Kingman’s work. Which choice would best accomplish this goal?
A) Although Kingman’s work might not be as famous as that of some other watercolor painters, such as Georgia O’Keeffe and Edward Hopper, it is well regarded by many people。
B) Since Kingman’s death in 2000, museums across the United States and in China have continued to ensure that his now iconic landscapes remain available for the public to enjoy。
C) The urban landscapes depicted in Kingman’s body of work are a testament to aptness of the name chosen for Kingman when he was just a boy。
D) Kingman’s work was but one example of a long-lasting tradition refreshed by an innovative artist with a new perspective。
第12题:问都没问,肯定考语法
A crowd of admiring spectators watched as Kingman squeezes dollops of paint from several tubes into a tin watercolor box,
语法点:时态
时态不会单独考,原文一定有参照物。as后面的squeezes说明了时态应该是一般现在时,所以答案选择D。
第13题:问都没问,肯定考语法
A crowd of admiring spectators watches as Kingman squeezes dollops of paint from several tubes into a tin watercolor box, from just a few primary colors, Kingman creates dozens of beautiful hues as he layers the translucent paint onto the paper on his easel。
语法点:标点符号
亲,这应该是两句话吧。咱给他一个句号行不?答案果断是B。这种标点符号题目的难点是,你考试的时候也许不敢选,因为实在太简单了,果断选吧。我们对于标点符号的用法掌握的还是蛮扎实的。
第14题:问都没问,肯定考语法
The name Kingman was selected for its two parts, “king” and “man”; Cantonese for “scenery” and “composition。”
语法点:标点符号
“parts“后面的”king” and “man”对前面起到解释说明作用,因此parts后面应该有一个冒号“: ”, 而句尾的Cantonese for “scenery” and “composition。”不是完整的一句话,因此它前面不能是分号“; ”。综合考虑这两个因素,选择B。
第15题:问都没问,肯定考语法
As Kingman developed as a painter, his works were often compared to paintings by Chinese landscape artists dating back to C E 960, .。。
语法点:比较的一致性
一个人的作品(画)应该和别人的画比,而不能和别人比:要保证比较对象的一致性。因此,答案非常明显就是A。
在比较的一致性中,要牢记一个口诀“你的小狗比我胖?这是不行滴!因为你的小狗只能和我的小狗比较,不能和我比。”
第16题:问都没问,肯定考语法
不是的!这道题目考词汇,看用词是否正确。
原文的意思是:Kingman并没有保持原来的传统画风,他关注的焦点不是自然风景、山川河流,而是城市。因此,需要一个词语表达“没有保持原来画风”,因此选中C,“脱离了原来的画风”,其他的词汇都不合适。
第17题:问第3句话放在哪里可以是文章逻辑性更强
第二段中,各句话的意思分别是 (我没有逐字翻译,就写个大概意思):[1] Kingman 很小的时候就喜欢风景画了[2] 在香港,就是Kingman上学的地方,老师当时习惯给学生一个“学名”[3] 他的兴趣如此强烈以至于他因此而命名……
如果看中文翻译,觉得放在这里也不错嘛!
但是!要注意英文原文。[1] Kingman was keenly interested in …. [2] I… [3] His interest was so keen, …。这个英文明显的表示出,第三句的interest就是第一句的interest,只不过,他们被一个完全不相干的第二句隔开了。因此,应该把第三句放在第一句后面。答案应该是C。
第18题:要选择段落中心句
这种题目,纯考阅读水平啊!
上一段结尾说他与众不同,关注城市。这里也说了他画市井生活的方方面面。可见,这段就是说他是如何关注城市的。A选项说他是先锋人物,这个和关注城市没有关系,不要。B选项说although城市是他的主题。这个肯定不能要!因为although后面的内容都不是重点,而我们这一段的重点就是城市。因此B分不清主次,不要。C 说在他的城市风景画中怎怎样,终于说了城市了,先留着吧。D说他搬家然后去上学,这和城市真心没有关系。因此,果断选中C,而且,哈哈哈,不用全看懂,不用全翻译啊!(我是不是太懒?)
第19题:问都没问,肯定考语法
a peanut vendor pushing his cart on the sidewalk, a pigeon pecking for crumbs around a fire hydrant, an old man tending to a baby outside a doorway
语法点:并列+标点
上面摘录的英文是三个并列的结构,在后面有一个and(但是没有也没有办法),B、C、D的标点符号(有的没有标点符号)都不正确,因此选择A,保持原样。
第20题:说作者想用Kingman画城市天际线的第三个细节例子完成句子,问哪一个选项行
这种问法着实讨厌。仔细一看,这道题还是语法啊!第三个例子和前两个例子果断应该齐刷刷并列啊!
with skyscrapers towering in the background, bridges connecting neighborhoods on either side of a river, and delicately painted creatures, such as a tiny, barely visible cat prowling in the bushes of a park。
这里并列的三者应该是with somebody doing something结构,立刻开心的选中D。
第21题:考句子合并
During his career, Kingman exhibited his work internationally. He garnered much acclaim。
A选项的and also是经典错误干扰项,考过800回,没有一回是正确答案的。C选项的but转折语气不对。应该是作品国际巡演从而得到好评,这个事情顺理成章,不需要用“但是”来转折。B选项的exhibited 和exhibiting啰嗦,因此答案就是D,现在分词短语的简洁描述。需要说明的是,并不是一开始就知道一定是ing短语胜出,这道题目和这种题目,多是需要用排除法来得到答案的。
第22题:问作者想用结尾句强调Kingman作品的持久价值,哪一个句子更合适这种题目考行文,首先要分清重要性和褒贬。既然要强调好的方面,说不好的就不合适了。例如A选项说“虽然Kingman的作品没有别人的”,这个话太煞风景。我们要说他的好,A偏说他不出名,那我果断不能选A。同样,D选项也不行。D说他的作品“只是众多这样作品的一个例子”,这就淡化了重要性,与我们的表达重点不符,D不要。B说Kingman 死后怎怎样,突然觉得和legacy遗产这个词还蛮搭配的,而且B说中美博物馆还有他的画。所以,B看起来很像答案。C说他的学名起的对。这简直让人丈二和尚摸不着头脑。因此,选择B。
总结
在这套文法解析中,我用学生的思路语言来解释了各题的解法。希望大家能够按照这个思路来解题,做题过程中可以节省很多时间,流畅性和正确率都得以加强。
总的看来,Official Guide的题目难度比原来旧SAT的语法题目难度要低很多。我十分有理由相信,在之后的正式考试中,文法题目的难度要明显高于Official Guide里面的样题的题目难度。
建议学生把原来旧SAT语法题目中的难题挑选出来,精讲精练,同时提高阅读水平,阅读流畅性,阅读速度和记忆力。这样才能确保在即将到来的新SAT考试中获得文法部分的高分甚至满分!

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